Dek-kwaru Lesono / Lesson Fourteen

Verbs: Compound Tenses 1

Simple Tenses:

These are the verbs we have seen so far (mi parlan, yi skribin, hi legon, mu pensuz, ay tiel plu)

Compound Tenses:

They are formed with the auxiliary verb 'esi' (to be, there is/are) and a participle. Participles are words that are formed from verbs and can perform different functions: as adjectives, nouns or adverbs. They can be 'active', indicating the agent of an action, or 'passive', indicating the people or things that suffer the effect of an action. In this lesson we will only cover the active participles that are formed by adding the endings -onta, -anta, -inta, to the verb, for the future, present or past tense.

The auxiliary 'esi' specifies the time of the subject of the sentence. The 'participle' specifies the time of the action.

Examples with active participles.

Maria esan fermonta la fenetro. 
    Maria is going to close the window.
Maria esan fermanta la fenetro. 
    Maria is closing the window.
Maria esan ferminta la fenetro. 
    Maria has closed the window.

Maria esin fermonta la fenetro. 
    Maria was going to close the window.
Maria esin fermanta la fenetro. 
    Maria was closing the window.
Maria esin ferminta la fenetro. 
    Maria had closed the window.

Maria eson fermonta la fenetro. 
    Maria will be going to close the window.
Maria eson fermanta la fenetro. 
    Maria will be closing the window.
Maria eson ferminta la fenetro. 
    Maria will have closed the window.

Here is another way of getting your head around it. If we know that every morning I read the newspaper at eight o'clock, then we can derive the following sentences:

Ciutage je la 7-u mi esan legonta la jurnalo.
Ciutage je la 8-u mi esan leganta la jurnalo.
Ciutage je la 9-u mi esan leginta la jurnalo.

Hiere je la 7-u mi esin legonta la jurnalo.
Hiere je la 8-u mi esin leganta la jurnalo.
Hiere je la 9-u mi esin leginta la jurnalo.

Morge je la 7-u mi eson legonta la jurnalo.
Morge je la 8-u mi eson leganta la jurnalo.
Morge je la 9-u mi eson leginta la jurnalo.
In Mondlango, the simple tenses are preferred, provided that they are not ambiguous or vague.  Instead, we use participles performing functions of adjectives, nouns and adverbs. 

Examples of adjectives

Present: -anta.
Fluganta birdo:  A bird that is flying.

Past: -inta.
La velkinta floro:  The withered flower.

Future : -onta.
Mortonta besto:  An animal that will die.

Examples of nouns

Present: -anto.
La mortanto (a dying person) kuxan sur la bedo.
Hi esan komensanto (a person that is starting or beginning).
Novyorko havan milionos da lojantos (inhabitants).
En la kongreso esin multa ceesantos (assistants)
Mi havan korespondantos (correspondents) en Europo, Asio ay Afriko.

Past: -into.
La mortinto (the dead, the person who died) esan en la tombeyo (cementery).
La venkinto (the winner) ricevin la trofo (trophy).
Edison esin la inventinto (inventor) de la fonografo. 

Future: -onto.
Mu, la mortontos (the mortals, who will die), esan pilgrimantos en tiu ci mondo.
La partoprenontos (participants, that will participate) de la pikniko devan porti la manjilaro (cutlery). 

Examples of adverbs

Present: -ante
Ekante la lernado, mi esin nur siks-yera.
    When starting to learn, I was only six. 

Past: -inte
Trinkinte kafo mi foririn.
    Having had coffee I left.
Workinte hi disdresin hia workdresos.
    After working he took off his work clothes.

Future: -onte
Elironte hi prenin un libro.
    About to go out, he took a book.

Suffix -estr-: It refers to the boss, superior or chief.
Urbo:       city
Urbestro:   mayor
Polico:     police
Policestro: police chief
Xipo:       ship
Xipestro:   captain

La urbestro de mia urbo esan mistulo Alvarez. 
La estraro de la firmio (the company authorities).
La estraro de la kongreso.
Hodie la estro de la governmento ne akceptan intervidos (interviews).